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0.4 — Introduction to C++ development

Before we can write and execute our first C++ program, we need to understand in more detail how C++ programs get developed. Here is a graphic outlining a simplistic approach:

The software development process

Step 1: Define the problem that you would like to solve.

This is the “what” step, where you figure out what problem you are intending to solve. Coming up with the initial idea for what you would like to program can be the easiest step, or the hardest. But conceptually, it is the simplest. All you need is an idea that can be well defined, and you’re ready for the next step.

Here are a few examples:

  • “I want to write a program that will allow me to enter many numbers, then calculates the average.”
  • “I want to write a program that generates a 2d maze and lets the user navigate through it. The user wins if they reach the end.”
  • “I want to write a program that reads in a file of stock prices and predicts whether the stock will go up or down.”

Step 2: Determine how you are going to solve the problem.

This is the “how” step, where you determine how you are going to solve the problem you came up with in step 1. It is also the step that is most neglected in software development. The crux of the issue is that there are many ways to solve a problem -- however, some of these solutions are good and some of them are bad. Too often, a programmer will get an idea, sit down, and immediately start coding a solution. This often generates a solution that falls into the bad category.

Typically, good solutions have the following characteristics:

  • They are straightforward (not overly complicated or confusing).
  • They are well documented (especially around any assumptions being made or limitations).
  • They are built modularly, so parts can be reused or changed later without impacting other parts of the program.
  • They are robust, and can recover or give useful error messages when something unexpected happens.

When you sit down and start coding right away, you’re typically thinking “I want to do _this_”, so you implement the solution that gets you there the fastest. This can lead to programs that are fragile, hard to change or extend later, or have lots of bugs (technical defects).

As an aside...

The term bug was first used by Thomas Edison back in the 1870s! However, the term was popularized in the 1940s when engineers found an actual moth stuck in the hardware of an early computer, causing a short circuit. Both the log book in which the error was reported and the moth are now part of the Smithsonian Museum of American History.

Studies have shown that only 20% of a programmer’s time is actually spent writing the initial program. The other 80% is spent on maintenance, which can consist of debugging (removing bugs), updates to cope with changes in the environment (e.g. to run on a new OS version), enhancements (minor changes to improve usability or function), or internal improvements (to increase reliability or maintainability).

Consequently, it’s worth your time to spend a little extra time up front before you start coding thinking about the best way to tackle a problem, what assumptions you are making, and how you might plan for the future, in order to save yourself a lot of time and trouble down the road.

We’ll talk more about how to effectively design solutions to problems in a future lesson.

Step 3: Write the program

In order to write the program, we need two things: First we need knowledge of a programming language -- that’s what these tutorials are for! Second, we need an editor. It’s possible to write a program using any editor you want, even something as simple as Window’s notepad or Unix’s vi or pico. However, we strongly urge you to use an editor that is designed for coding. Don’t worry if you don’t have one yet. We’ll cover how to install a code editor shortly.

A typical editor designed for coding has a few features that make programming much easier, including:

1) Line numbering. Line numbering is useful when the compiler gives us an error, as a typical compiler error will state: some error code/message, line 64. Without an editor that shows line numbers, finding line 64 can be a real hassle.

2) Syntax highlighting and coloring. Syntax highlighting and coloring changes the color of various parts of your program to make it easier to identify the different components of your program. Here’s an example of a C++ program with both line numbering and syntax highlighting:

The examples we show in this tutorial will always have both line numbering and syntax highlighting to make them easier to follow.

3) An unambiguous font. Non-programming fonts often make it hard to distinguish between the number 0 and the letter O, or between the number 1, the letter l (lower case L), and the letter I (upper case i). A good programming font will differentiate these symbols in order to ensure one isn’t accidentally used in place of the other.

In C++ your programs will typically be called name.cpp, where name is replaced with the name of your choosing for the program (e.g. calculator, hi-lo, etc…). The .cpp extension tells the compiler (and you) that this is a C++ source code file that contains C++ instructions. Note that some people use the extension .cc instead of .cpp, but we recommend you use .cpp.

Best practice

Name your code files name.cpp, where name is a name of your choosing, and .cpp is the extension that indicates the file is a C++ source file.

Also note that many complex C++ programs have multiple .cpp files. Although most of the programs you will be creating initially will only have a single .cpp file, it is possible to write single programs that have tens or hundreds of .cpp files.

Once we’ve written our program, the next steps are to convert it into something that we can run, and then see whether it works! We’ll discuss those steps (4-7) in the next lesson.

0.5 -- Installing an Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
Index
0.3 -- Introduction to C/C++

95 comments to 0.4 — Introduction to C++ development

  • Ashley

    Thanks for clarifying, Alex.

  • Ashley

    Hi, Alex
    I'm a bit confused about something. You say above that all programs should have the .cpp extension. With "programs" do you mean the project file or the files inside the project? Whenever I start a new project with CodeBlocks they ask me for a project title. When I give a name it then adds this name in the project file name box below with an extension .cbp . When I change .cbp to .cpp it saves fine. Only problem is that when I try to open it again, CodeBlocks does not find it unless I set file type to C++ files. Then when I open it it does not open as a project but as some file with lots of things written in that I don't understand. I know that within a project I should give any new files I create the .cpp extension and then it gets grouped with the main.cpp file in the project. So what I need clarification on is whether I should use the .cpp extension on the project file when I start a fresh project(although I have a feeling this is not what you meant), or only to any new file I add to the existing project?

  • Hi Alex,
    I always question myself that how something like photoshop is written in C++ ?
    I encountered a question in web that was my question : << what languages would be used to create something like adobe photoshop? I've created about 2 programs using c++, but they're like those tutorial things where they run in DOS, and the most advanced one I did was adding two numbers. :(

    But How would you make a program where it opens outside of DOS, with it's own interface and things like that. Basically something like photoshop, or any program like excel or word >>
    C++ GUI libraries are not part of standard libraries, so I guess that they did not use them to write something like photoshop or Mozilla apps ...
    So How ? (this question is making me crazy!)

    • Alex

      You're correct, C++ GUI libraries aren't part of the C++ standard. I think the main reason is because GUI applications are operating-system specific. The C++ library tends to stick to things that are operating system agnostic.

      Fortunately, there are external libraries to fill in the gaps. QT is a popular library for making cross-platform GUI applications. If you don't mind being Windows specific, you can have your application interface with Windows directly and build a MFC application. There are plenty of other C++ GUI libraries as well. It's just a matter of finding the right one for whatever you're trying to do (and what you budget is). I'm not sure what library Photoshop uses (or whether Adobe writes their own code for each operating system).

      • Hello again,
        I still don't know what we can do with C++ ?!
        for example if we want to develop windows GUI applications, I think C# is a good choice.
        if we want to develop android applications Java is good.

        I mean nobody likes programs that runs in DOS or Terminal environment.
        what useful thing we can create with C++ (in DOS environment) ?

        I'm learning C++ but I'm not sure for continue learning ...

        every body says C/C++ are powerful languages that can directly associate with hardware and manage memory | what we can do with this ?!

        Thanks.

        • Alex

          You can do just about anything with C++, including writing Windows GUI applications. C++ excels at high performance, low latency, and memory constrained (e.g. embedded) applications. It's used in 2d/3d games and simulations, finance, manufacturing, embedded systems, operating systems, compilers, music players, server applications, search engines, and everything in-between. Unlike Java or C#, C++ doesn't require a huge framework to be installed first (the JVM/.Net frameworks).

          Given a specific task, other languages may be easier or more suitable to use, so it really depends on what you specifically want to do, and what your performance requirements are.

          This tutorial teaches using the console environment because it's easy and cross-platform. Once you know the fundamentals of C++, learning how to write GUI apps is a lot simpler than trying to learn how to do C++ AND write GUI apps simultaneously.

          Also, once you know C++, moving to Java or C# (or vice-versa) is easier, because they have similar syntaxes, and a lot of fundamental programming concepts are language agnostic.

  • Hi Alex,
    What is your idea about Qt?
    Is that good?
    Is it very different with C++ console programming?
    Can you Compare Qt and C# ? which one is better?
    tnx ;)

    • Alex

      I like Qt. It's a solid, cross-platform library with a lot of useful functionality, including GUI components. I also like it because doesn't require a bunch of dependencies to be installed first. You can distribute everything with your executable, which makes installing your app easy. And it's efficient.

      I can't speak to C#, as I don't have much familiarity with it.

  • mubin

    thanxxxx....alex

  • Enrique

    Fantastic... help to lovel PROGRAMMING

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