# 6.3 — Arrays and loops

Consider the case where we want to find the average test score of a class of students. Using individual variables:

That’s a lot of variables and a lot of typing -- and this is just 5 students! Imagine how much work we’d have to do for 30 students, or 150.

Plus, if a new student is added, a new variable has to be declared, initialized, and added to the totalScore calculation. Any time you have to modify old code, you run the risk of introducing errors.

Using arrays offers a slightly better solution:

This cuts down on the number of variables declared significantly, but totalScore still requires each array element be listed individually. And as above, changing the number of students means the totalScore formula needs to be manually adjusted.

If only there were a way to loop through our array and calculate totalScore directly.

Loops and arrays

In a previous lesson, you learned that the array subscript doesn’t need to be a constant value -- it can be a variable. This means we can use a loop variable as an array index to loop through all of the elements of our array and perform some calculation on them. This is such a common thing to do that wherever you find arrays, you will almost certainly find loops! When a loop is used to access each array element in turn, this is often called iterating through the array.

Here’s our example above using a for loop:

This solution is ideal in terms of both readability and maintenance. Because the loop does all of our array element accesses, the formulas adjust automatically to account for the number of elements in the array. This means the calculations do not have to be manually altered to account for new students, and we do not have to manually add the name of new array elements!

Here’s an example of using a loop to search an array in order to determine the best score in the class:

In this example, we use a non-loop variable called maxScore to keep track of the highest score we’ve seen. maxScore is initialized to 0 to represent that we have not seen any scores yet. We then iterate through each element of the array, and if we find a score that is higher than any we’ve seen before, we set maxScore to that value. Thus, maxScore always represents the highest score out of all the elements we’ve searched so far. By the time we reach the end of the array, maxScore holds the highest score in the entire array.

Mixing loops and arrays

Loops are typically used with arrays to do one of three things:
1) Calculate a value (e.g. average value, total value)
2) Search for a value (e.g. highest value, lowest value).
3) Reorganize the array (e.g. ascending order, descending order)

When calculating a value, a variable is typically used to hold an intermediate result that is used to calculate the final value. In the above example where we are calculating an average score, totalScore holds the total score for all the elements examined so far.

When searching for a value, a variable is typically used to hold the best candidate value seen so far (or the array index of the best candidate). In the above example where we use a loop to find the best score, maxScore is used to hold the highest score encountered so far.

Sorting an array is a bit more tricky, as it typically involves nested loops. We will cover sorting an array in the next lesson.

Arrays and off-by-one errors

One of the trickiest parts of using loops with arrays is making sure the loop iterates the proper number of times. Off-by-one errors are easy to make, and trying to access an element that is larger than the size of the array can have dire consequences. Consider the following program:

The problem with this program is that the conditional in the for loop is wrong! The array declared has 5 elements, indexed from 0 to 4. However, this array loops from 0 to 5. Consequently, on the last iteration, the array will execute this:

But scores is undefined! This can cause all sorts of issues, with the most likely being that scores results in a garbage value. In this case, the probable result is that maxScore will be wrong.

However, imagine what would happen if we inadvertently assigned a value to array! We might overwrite another variable (or part of it), or perhaps corrupt something -- these types of bugs can be very hard to track down!

Consequently, when using loops with arrays, always double-check your loop conditions to make sure you do not introduce off-by-one errors.

Quiz

1) Print the following array to the screen using a loop:

2) Given the array in question 1:

Ask the user for a number between 1 and 9. If the user does not enter a number between 1 and 9, repeatedly ask for a number until they do. Once they have entered a number between 1 and 9, print the array. Then search the array for the number that the user entered and print the index of that element.

You can test std::cin for invalid input by using the following code:

3) Modify the following program. Rename maxScore to maxIndex, and have it hold the index of the largest score rather than the actual last score.

Quiz solutions

### 52 comments to 6.3 — Arrays and loops

• Tijn

I was under the impression I was supposed to print the array of numbers that the user gave as input instead of the given array in the example. Probably it is better do use do while loops instead of my solution, but this is what I came up with (unfortunately it seems "<<" and include iostream seems to be messed up by the post):

#include

int main(int argc, const char * argv[])
{
using namespace std;

int anInputNumbers={0};
int nCorrectInputIdx;

for (int iii=0;iii<200;iii++){
cout <> anInputNumbers[iii];
if (anInputNumbers[iii]>=0 && anInputNumbers[iii] <=9){
nCorrectInputIdx=iii;
cout << "The numbers you entered were:" << endl;
for (int jjj=0;jjj<=iii;jjj++)
cout << anInputNumbers[jjj] << " ";
cout << endl << "You managed to enter a correct number on try " << nCorrectInputIdx+1 << endl;
break;
}
}

return 0;
}

• Tijn

``` #include <iostream>```

``` int main(int argc, const char * argv[]) { using namespace std; int anInputNumbers={0}; int nCorrectInputIdx; for (int iii=0;iii<200;iii++){ cout << "Enter a number between 0-9: "; cin >> anInputNumbers[iii]; if (anInputNumbers[iii]>=0 && anInputNumbers[iii] <=9){ nCorrectInputIdx=iii; cout << "The numbers you entered were:" << endl; for (int jjj=0;jjj<=iii;jjj++) cout << anInputNumbers[jjj] << " "; cout << endl << "You managed to enter a correct number on try " << nCorrectInputIdx+1 << endl; // index plus one to get the number of tries break; } } return 0; } ```

• ahmed20

hi iam just a student and i cannot answer this quiz can you help me; please?
4.2 Determine the score
Your friend has developed a game in which you have a
player that walks in a maze and kills his enemies. He
has a problem in calculating his score. He asked you to
write a program that prints his score.
You will be given: 2 Integers M and N (1<= M <= N
<= 100) followed by a 2D representation of the maze
(M X N), where the point [i, j] represents the value of
killing the monster on this grid.
The path that the player will take: string which points
the direction you move to ( N for North, W for West, E
for East, S for South )
The player's starting point is [0, 0]
Print the score of the player.
Sample Input :-
5 5
1 2 3 4 5
6 5 4 3 2
5 8 5 2 9
1 3 4 9 7
6 5 4 3 2
SSESEN
Sample Output :-
32

• Refat Eid

hay,
first of all thanks a lot for this tutorial :)
now i have a simple problem, when i try to do the second Quiz
if I entered char for example \$
it enter an infinite loop

• Refat Eid

int anArray = { 4, 6, 7, 3, 8, 2, 1, 9, 5 };
int num;
do
{
cout <> num;
}
while(num 9);

for(int nIndex =0; nIndex < sizeof(anArray)/sizeof(anArray);nIndex++)
if(anArray[nIndex] == num)
{
cout << "Your array index is : " << nIndex <<endl;
break;
}

• Keroronsk

I guess it's better to use sizeof(anScores) instead of nNumStudents=5 :)

• Silvia

For 6.3 — Arrays and loops - 2nd Quiz: If I run your code, and enter any letter instead of a number, it loops infinitely on printing the request. Why? (Entering any number other than 1..9 it works instead: it properly stops on asking)

• eect13

cant paste my code properly sorry

• eect13

is my solution same on #2?

#include
using namespace std;

void main()
{
int number;
do
{
cout <> number;
}
while(number 9);

int array[] = {1,3,2,5,8,11,4,9,21,24};

for (int index = 0; index <= 9; index++)
{
cout << array[index] << " ";
}
cout << endl << number << " has index " << array[number] << endl;

system("pause");
}

• eect13

#include
using namespace std;

void main()
{
int number;
do
{
cout <> number;
}
while(number 9);

int array[] = {1,3,2,5,8,11,4,9,21,24};

for (int index = 0; index <= 9; index++)
{
cout << array[index] << " ";
}
cout << endl << number << " has index " << array[number] << endl;

system("pause");
}