6.3 — Local variables and shadowing

In lesson 2.4 -- Introduction to local scope, we introduced local variables, which are variables that are defined inside a function (including function parameters).

It turns out that C++ actually doesn’t have a single attribute that defines a variable as being a local variable. Instead, local variables have several different properties that help differentiate how local variables behave from other kinds of (non-local) variables. We’ll explore these properties in this and upcoming lessons, as well as a few other local variable related topics of note.

Local variables have block scope

An identifier’s scope determines where an identifier can be accessed within the source code. Scope is a compile-time property.

Local variables have block scope, which means they are in scope from their point of definition to the end of the block they are defined within.

Although function parameters are not defined inside the function body, for typical functions they can be considered to be part of the scope of the function body block.

The exception case is for function-level exception handling (which we cover in lesson %Failed lesson reference, id 5334%).

All variable names within a scope must be unique

Variable names must be unique within a given scope, otherwise any reference to the name will be ambiguous. Consider the following program:

The above program doesn’t compile because the variable x defined inside the function body and the function parameter x have the same name and both are in the same block scope.

Local variables have automatic storage duration

A variable’s storage duration (usually just called duration) determines what rules govern when and how a variable will be created and destroyed. In most cases, a variable’s storage duration directly determines it’s lifetime.

For example, local variables have automatic storage duration, which means they are created at the point of definition and destroyed at the end of the block they are defined in. For example:

For this reason, local variables are sometimes called automatic variables.

Local variables in nested blocks

Local variables can be defined inside nested blocks. This works identically to local variables in function body block:

In the above example, variable y is defined inside a nested block. Its scope is limited from its point of definition to the end of the nested block, and its lifetime is the same. Because the scope of variable y is limited to the inner block in which it is defined, it’s not accessible anywhere in the outer block.

Note that nested blocks are considered part of the scope of the outer block in which they are defined. Consequently, variables defined in the outer block can be seen inside a nested block:

Local variables have no linkage

Identifiers have another property named linkage. An identifier’s linkage determines whether other declarations of that name refer to the same object or not.

Local variables have no linkage, which means that each declaration refers to a unique object. For example:

Scope and linkage may seem somewhat similar. However, scope defines where a single declaration can be seen and used. Linkage defines whether multiple declarations refer to the same object or not.

Linkage isn’t very interesting in the context of local variables, but we’ll talk about it more in the next few lessons.


Each block defines its own scope region. So what happens when we have a variable inside a nested block that has the same name as a variable in an outer block? When this happens, the nested variable “hides” the outer variable in areas where they are both in scope. This is called name hiding or shadowing.

If you run this program, it prints:


In the above program, we first declare a variable named apples in the outer block. This variable is visible within the inner block, which we can see by printing its value (5). Then we declare a different variable (also named apples) in the nested block. From this point to the end of the block, the name apples refers to the nested block apples, not the outer block apples.

Thus, when we assign value 10 to apples, we’re assigning it to the nested block apples. After printing this value (10), nested block apples is destroyed. The existence and value of outer block apples is not affected, and we prove this by printing the value of outer block apples (5).

Note that if the nested block apples had not been defined, the name apples in the nested block would still refer to the outer block apples, so the assignment of value 10 to apples would have applied to the outer block apples:

The above program prints:


Shadowing should generally be avoided, as it can lead to inadvertent errors where the wrong variable is used or modified. Some compilers will issue a warning when a variable is shadowed.

Best practice

Avoid variable shadowing.

Variables should be defined in the most limited scope

If a variable is only used within a nested block, it should be defined inside that nested block:

By limiting the scope of a variable, you reduce the complexity of the program because the number of active variables is reduced. Further, it makes it easier to see where variables are used (or aren’t used). A variable defined inside a block can only be used within that block (or nested blocks). This can make the program easier to understand.

If a variable is needed in an outer block, it needs to be declared in the outer block:

The above example shows one of the rare cases where you may need to declare a variable well before its first use.

New developers sometimes wonder whether it’s worth creating a nested block just to intentionally limit a variable’s scope (and force it to go out of scope / be destroyed early). Doing so makes that variable simpler, but the overall function becomes longer and more complex as a result. The tradeoff generally isn’t worth it. If creating a nested block seems useful to intentionally limit the scope of a chunk of code, that code might be better to put in a separate function instead.

Best practice

Define variables in the most limited existing scope. Avoid creating new blocks whose only purpose is to limit the scope of variables.

Quiz time

Question #1

Write a program that asks the user to enter two integers. If the user enters a smaller value for the second integer, use a block and a temporary variable to swap the smaller and larger values. Then print the values of the smaller and larger variables. Add comments to your code indicating where each variable dies.

The program output should match the following:

Enter an integer: 4
Enter a larger integer: 2
Swapping the values
The smaller value is 2
The larger value is 4

Show Solution

Question #2

What’s the difference between a variable’s scope, duration, and lifetime? By default, what kind of scope and duration do local variables have (and what do those mean)?

Show Solution

6.4 -- Introduction to global variables
6.2 -- User-defined namespaces

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